The hypostyle hall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera, Egypt.
The first hypostyle hall within the Temple of Hathor contains sandstone columns with Hathor head capitals. This hall was built during the Ptolemaic period, and was later decorated during the Roman period. The name of Roman emperor Claudius appears on the columns, and Nero on the walls.
Gay Robins (in The Art of Ancient Egypt, page 231) discusses the decoration of the columns themselves:
The columns display the three fields into which temple decoration was divided. At the bottom are three registers of emblematic groups. A horizontal band of text divides them from the main area showing ritual interactions between the king and deities. This is separated by another band of text from further registers of emblematic figures at the top.
Photos taken by Kyera Giannini, via the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World.
A huge relief on the front wall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera that depicts Cleopatra VII, Julius Caeser and their son Caesarion.
Cleopatra was a shrewd enough politician to realize that linking Egypt’s fortunes with those of Rome would be the best way to secure her kingdom, and in the traditional way of Hellenistic queens, she used dynastic ties to try protect her rights.
Julius Caesar, then in his fifties, fell in love with the twenty-one-year-old queen -much to the horror of many Romans. Cleopatra bore him a child named Caesarion, and seemed as if a new dynasty would rule Egypt, but first Caesar would have to marry the queen and declare the child legitimate.
When Julius Caesar returned to Rome in 46 B.C., he celebrated a triumph in which he demonstrated the subjugation of Egypt by having Cleopatra’s younger sister march in chains. Yet, Cleopatra was still the acknowledged queen of Egypt, and Caesar placed a statue of her made of gold in the temple of Venus. Cleopatra, her son, Caesarion, and her consort Ptolemy XIV joined Caesar in 46 B.C., and they stayed in Caesar’s villa outside Rome. Caesar may have planned to gain special permission from the Roman people to marry Cleopatra, but his plans were cut short by his assassination in 44 B.C. Cleopatra would need all her wits and charm to hold her throne without her champion.
As was customary in the Hellenistic dynasties, Cleopatra first placed her hopes in her son, Caesarion, expecting that he could rule and that as a son of Caesar he would receive Rome’s support. Her younger brother stood in the way of a clear succession, and he was poisoned about the time of Caesar’s death. Historians differ about Cleopatra’s role in her brother’s death. Cleopatra quickly returned to Egypt with Caesarion to await the power struggle that was sure to come…
-Encyclopedia of Women in the Ancient World, Joyce Salisbury.
Photo courtesy & taken by Kyera Giannini via Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York.
Hadrian’s Wall. Roman emperor Hadrian (76-138 AD) had a fortified wall built across Roman Britain. The government organization English Heritage describes it as "the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain."
Restored sandstone fragments found in Jarrow (dating to 118/119) record that it was the wish of Hadrian to keep "intact the empire," which had been imposed upon him via “divine instruction.”
The most famous and thoroughly explored frontier system created by the Roman army. Construction of the wall began in AD 122 on the instructions of the Emperor Hadrian while on a visit to the province; it was completed in about AD 133. Various kinds of construction are represented along its length, but the basic idea was a stone wall punctuated at intervals of a Roman mile by small forts with turrets in between. Larger forts lay at intervals. The purpose of the wall was to control the movement of people in and out of the empire, and to counter localized threats and uprisings. Hadrian’s Wall was abandoned between AD 140 and Ad 163 when the frontier moved north to the Antonine Wall, but otherwise it remained in place throughout the Roman occupation of Britain.
Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology, Timothy Darvill.
Photos courtesy & taken by Bill Hails.